Filming and editing in virtual reality—creating a new language of imagery and sound

Filming and editing in virtual reality—creating a new language of ...

Ever since Google got into virtual reality, the company has strived to make the technology accessible to everyone. Instead of needing a sophisticated headset, for example, Google Cardboard can produce a rich, immersive VR experience with just, you guessed it, cardboard and a few pieces of plastic, combined with a smartphone. But the technology required to create VR environments was out of reach for many.

With the goal of simplifying VR filming and editing, a team of Google engineers was tasked with making it easier to create VR content so VR users would have more experiences to choose from. The team decided to create a system that would make creating stereoscopic 360, or 360-3D, video more efficient. After all, it cost VR filmmakers weeks of time and thousands of dollars to painstakingly stitch together a series of images into a 360 frame. “Creators had to manually mark correspondences in order to stitch images together,” explains software engineer Robert Anderson. “It tended to be very slow and painstaking.”

Robert and his team got to work prototyping algorithms that would speed up stitching time and on building a camera rig that could work with the software to expedite the process. Armed with a 3D-printed rig that held 16 GoPro cameras, the team went outside to film some test footage. “I think the first video was of one of our team members, Richard, unicycling down the canal outside the office,” Robert recalls. “We shot some video and stitched it together and it actually kind of worked! The first video we got off the prototype was way better than we expected!”

Indeed, the video test proved they were on their way to creating what would become Jump, an ecosystem for creating 3D-360 virtual reality content. It consisted of three parts: a 16-camera rig called the GoPro Odyssey, a player (YouTube), and the groundbreaking Jump Assembler, cloud-based software that converts the inputs from the multiple cameras into one seamless, three-dimensional 360-degree video.

Eager to present the GoPro Odyssey and Jump Assembler at 2015’s Google I/O, the team knew they needed compelling footage to demonstrate just how exciting this breakthrough technology was. They enlisted Jessica Brillhart, formerly a Google filmmaker, to go out into the field and create a short film.

The film, named World Tour, was an odyssey that took Jessica and the team to California, Puerto Rico, Iceland, and Japan. Along the way, cameras overheated and failed, SD cards got mixed in the shuffle (there were 16 after all), and syncing all of the prototype’s cameras to shoot at the same time proved challenging. “We spent many late nights on the phone with Jessica, troubleshooting and commiserating,” says Christopher Hoover, a senior software engineer who oversaw the camera rig. “It was a lot of flying by the seat of our pants, trying to get something that was actually watchable.”

In the end, they got the footage, and the Jump Assembler got to shine, automating the process of stitching stereoscopic 360 video into a VR-ready experience in a matter of hours.

Now, when a user uploads their raw footage into the Jump Assembler, algorithms analyze and process the footage using a combination of computational photography (the stitching together of the individual images from each of the 16 cameras to create one 360-degree image) and computer vision (algorithms that allow the computers to see the images and make decisions about how they should fit together). The result is a seamless and clear 360 video that has depth, so that objects nearby look close and objects in the background look far away.

I’m looking forward to extending, and getting Jump into the hands of more filmmakers.

Recording sound that surrounds

Software engineers Dillon Cower and Brian O’Toole were tasked with converting the shoot’s audio files into sound that could fill a 360 degree space. “If you have a 360 video without spatial audio, as you look around, the sound isn’t changing with respect to your point of view,” Dillon explains. “Spatial audio unlocks the ability to rotate sound as you’re hearing it, so that when you turn your head to hear a sound coming from the left, you actually hear what you’re looking at.”

Needing to learn on the fly, Dillon and Brian dug deep into 1970s research on Ambisonics, an early surround sound technology, to help engineer software that could convert traditional audio to spatial audio. “The filmmaker would give us audio, and we’d convert it to spatial audio. Then we had to listen to all the clips to decide which ones matched the video best,” says Dillon. After combining the video and audio, they’d send it back for feedback. Piece by piece, the audio was engineered to match the video.

Looking forward

The team’s groundbreaking technology debuted at I/O ’15 as planned, expanding the world of VR filmmaking. “It was a crazy, mad rush up I/O,” says Robert, who wrote algorithms for the Jump Assembler. “We saw it coming together in bits and pieces, so it was really cool to see the final piece and people’s reaction to it.”

My favorite thing about working here is that people trust you and give you the independence to figure things out for yourself and independently solve problems.

While some of the team have moved on to other projects, they are all eager to see what the future brings for VR filmmaking. “At the moment we only have a couple hundred cameras out there, which puts a fairly hard limit on what can be produced,” says Robert. “I’m looking forward to extending, and getting Jump into the hands of more filmmakers.”

Christopher agrees. “There’s a whole language of filmmaking that is starting to develop in VR. We need to figure out how to fully utilize VR for education and teleportation. How do we make it so that you can buy a ticket to a VR experience of a concert that is happening live? These are questions we want to answer.”

In the meantime, stitching algorithms and spatial audio have room to improve. “You could think of the current form of spatial audio we use today as being similar to low-res video,” Dillon explains. “We’re working on a higher-resolution aspect called ‘high-order ambisonics’ that requires a lot more processing power. There are multiple teams working on it—it’s a really hard problem to solve.”

But that’s the beauty of working at Google, adds Dillon. “There are a ton of unsolved problems at Google, especially in VR,” he says. “My favorite thing about working here is that people trust you and give you the independence to figure things out for yourself and independently solve problems.”

Stopping Unconscious Bias is a Team Effort

Two JPMorgan Chase technology leaders discuss bias and the role leadership must play to address it in the workplace.

In this series we dig into gender diversity in technology, advice from women who have succeeded in the industry, and why equality is essential in the workplace.

Fighting unconscious bias in technology groups can’t be left to the women in the room. In the third installation of our series on women in technology, we sat down with two JPMorgan Chase technology executives to get their views on why it’s so important for leadership to create an environment where everyone is heard and appreciated for the specific skills they bring to the table.

Bill Wallace, Head of Digital, Consumer and Community Banking, Wilmington, Delaware

“While there are introverted men and women everywhere, gender and cultural differences can add an extra layer of complexity and opportunity for leaders. I always encourage team leaders to create a work environment where each individual feels comfortable contributing. It often requires leaders to embrace diverse styles and to encourage input from everyone.

It should be the leader who’s helping all people—regardless of gender or culture—find their footing in a team and feel comfortable voicing their opinions in that team. If someone is naturally quiet, for instance, it’s up to me to draw them out and make the environment a non-judgmental one, which welcomes all kinds of questions and opinions. And if someone is still uncomfortable speaking in a crowd, then it’s up to me to get their input outside of a meeting environment. Everyone’s different.”

Tiffany Polk, Managing Director, Global Head of Storage Infrastructure, Newark, Delaware

“I’m a woman and black, so I’ve witnessed unconscious biases against both my race and gender. I’ve been lucky at JPMorgan Chase, but one time earlier in my career when I was heading up a team of technologists, I walked into the office and a person I didn’t know was scrambling to get ready for a meeting. He looked at me said: ‘can you help me out and run these copies?’ I ran the copies, came to the meeting, walked up to the person and said: ‘here’s the presentation.’ Then I ran the meeting like nothing happened. The person was mortified and apologized to me afterwards.

As a female leader you have to be extremely aware of what’s going on in the room. You need to work on building the emotional intelligence to see the dynamics play out in real-time, and to be both the observer of yourself as well as others. You can’t just throw emotional heat into situations—you have to think about how you can get the best results.”

Girls are using data analytics to figure out what’s fair – and what they are capable of

Mariama
Mariama answers a question in a lesson about probability and fairness in a class of the Pre-G3 Elsevier Data Analytics Preparatory Program

Girls in under-served communities are learning data science in a program by Girls Inc. of NYC and the Elsevier Foundation

BRONX, NY — In a brightly lit classroom, middle school girls are chatting, tossing dice and penciling their scores on an index card. It may seem like fun and games in this playful after school program, but stick around and you will see that there’s much more to it.

What these students are about to learn may well impact them far into the future.

“This program helps you understand challenges that you’re going to meet in life and how to overcome them,” said 11-year-old Rodiyat. “And they don’t treat you as a child now because they know that you’re not going to be a child forever,” she added. “They teach you stuff that you’re going to come back to later on.”

The “stuff” she’s referring to includes everything from the fundamentals of data analytics to how to think, question and learn.

Rodiyat is enrolled in the Pre-G3 Elsevier Data Analytics Preparatory Program, developed by Girls Inc. of New York City in partnership with the Elsevier Foundation. Here, girls in 10 New York City public schools are immersed in the world of data analytics and how data can be used to interpret nearly every aspect of their lives. This class meets at the Young Women’s Leadership School of the Bronx.

Students are taught data science through the lens of social justice issues:

  • They review articles about current events and analyze the metadata to come to their own conclusions.
  • They explore ethical usage of data via databases used by the College Board, health insurance companies, social media, and health and wellbeing tracking devices like Fitbit and Sleep Cycle.
  • They use data to improve their community by exploring the work of local “game changers”— women who are making a difference in how data is being collected and analyzed. These include Joy Buolamwini, a Ghanaian-American computer scientist and digital activist who founded the Algorithmic Justice League, an organization that challenges bias in decision-making software, Giorgia Lupi, an information designer who takes a humanistic approach to data by designing visual narratives that reconnect numbers to what they stand for: stories, people and ideas.
  • To visualize their own data, they learn to use Excel and Tableau software.

For Rodiyat, this education is preparing her for an ambitious career goal. “I want to be a doctor,” she said, “and I know that in order to do that, you have to study a lot, and you have to make sure you read, and I think Girls Inc. is helping us do a lot of that.”

Rodiya with charts
Rodiyat, 11, poses in front of the charts she and her classmates made for an activity called “Is it a fair game?”

Letizia, 10, also has high ambitions:

People underestimate females way too much. I want to become a leader of other girls when I grow up to teach them that females can do what they want.

Letizia

It stems from when she was one of just three girls to make the school soccer team back in Milan, Italy.

The boys were like, ‘Are you sure you can be here? You know you’re going to get kicked everywhere, and you know, like, you’re probably going to slip and you’re probably going to get hurt, and this and that – so don’t go whining back to us to say that we didn’t warn you.’

Of course, none of that happened. “I showed them,” she said, grinning.

Ciara with dice game
Ciara and Alina play a game with dice.

While this course is new, Girls Inc. of NYC has introduced hundreds of high school girls to data analytics through Generation Giga Girls (G3): The Moody’s Data Analytics Program. The demand for more programming serving even younger girls sparked the creation of this program, and the Elsevier Foundation was a natural partner because of Elsevier’s role in using information analytics to help researchers solve some of the world’s most pressing problems.

“From the beginning, we recognized the Pre-G3 program as a perfect fit for both the Elsevier Foundation and Elsevier,” said Ylann Schemm, Director of the Elsevier Foundation. “It touches on so many areas we care deeply about: gender, technology, capacity building and under recognized talent — areas we can really contribute to.”

Through the G3 program, 12-year-old Ciara has been getting a head start on technology studies by learning coding, so data science was a natural extension of her education. “When you’re doing coding, you have to keep track of the data,” she explained. Plus learning to analyze the data helps her see the big picture of what she does in coding.

Getting a holistic education

Stephanie
Stephanie, 13, plays a data analytics game with dice.

At 13, Stephanie is learning to overcome an issue many girls her age can relate to as they set high standards for themselves and compare themselves to their peers. “Sometimes I feel like I can’t do enough – like my grades,” she said. “I compare myself a lot to other people, so I feel like I’m not as good as them.”

Here, in addition to learning skills to improve her grades, she’s learning to practice growth mindset. This approach involves teaching students that intelligence is a skill they can develop with effort rather than a fixed trait they are born with – and research is showing that it can help girls with math and science.

Pre-G3 addresses key issues by training students in a developmentally appropriate manner by building tangible skills for looking at math. After completing the year-long course, girls receive math and science credits that will count towards middle or high school graduation.

In keeping with the Girls Inc. model, students also receive a holistic education that includes media literacy and critical thinking skills. The course builds a foundation for data literacy by teaching the hard skills necessary to prepare for the school’s advanced data analytics courses while addressing the broader questions of “What is data?” and “Why should we care about data?”

“By the end of the school year, we will expand the data literate population, capable of understanding, generating and using data,” said Andrea E. Oliver, STEM Program Manager for Girls Inc. of NYC and a doctoral candidate in Urban Science Education at the Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY).

A growing demand for data literacy

Girls Inc class
Marguerite Copeland, Program Specialist for Girls Inc. of NYC, flips a coin in a lesson about probability.

With the ever-increasing demand across professions for skills in managing data, high-level math and science courses are essential to prepare girls of color for college and careers in data science. However, black and Latino students “are being shortchanged in their access” to these courses, according to federal civil rights data.

This year, the US Department of Education reiterated the need for STEM education for all students:

In an ever-changing, increasingly complex world, it’s more important than ever that our nation’s youth are prepared to bring knowledge and skills to solve problems, make sense of information, and know how to gather and evaluate evidence to make decisions.

They emphasized that all children should have access to STEM education and that “a child’s zip code should not determine their STEM fluency.”

This is why the Elsevier Foundation and Girls Inc. of New York City partnership is so important. By increasing the number of girls enrolling in data analytics by improving their core skills, confidence, and resiliency, the Pre-G3 program is building the next generation of women equipped for success in filling the demanding jobs our economy is relying on.

“We try to give them a lot of different opportunities to get more girls into the field,” Oliver said.

Andrea
Andrea E. Oliver, STEM Program Manager for Girls Inc. of NYC, works with Letizia. Oliver developed the activities for this program.

Probability game: “Is it a fair game?”

Andrea E. Oliver, an award-winning STEM educator who has taught science for more than two decades, designs the lessons for this class. On this day, students played a game with dice and then were asked to analyze the results to determine if the game was fair.

  • Group participants into pairs.
  • One participant in the pair will play for 0,1,2 while the other plays for 3,4,5.
  • Each participant pair receives a probability die (2 different colors).
  • Each participant gets to roll the die once, then take the two numbers and find the difference.
  • For instance, if one student rolls a 5 and his/her partner rolls a 3, they would take the larger number and subtract it from the smaller number. In this case 5 – 3 = 2. When they determine the difference, they will be able to see who receives a point based on which camp they belong to: 0,1,2 or 3,4,5.
  • They will play this game 25 times and tally their results on an index card.
  • Participants will discover that 0,1,2 often wins the games. But is this game fair?
  • Participants create a data table and analyze the data to demonstrate that the game is not fair. That’s because 0,1,2 has a total of 15 possible outcomes whereas 3,4,5 has a total of 6.

* Modified from the Difference Game and created by Andrea E. Oliver.

Best Tech Jobs 2020: The Most In-Demand Jobs in Technology for the New Decade

The tech industry is booming, so now is the perfect time to learn about the best tech jobs in the industry. We’ve ranked these top jobs in tech based on several factors, including salary, job outlook, and education requirements. 

The information in this guide comes from a variety of sources, including the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Glassdoor, ZipRecruiter, and PayScale.

2020 is here, so we won’t keep you waiting–here are the best tech jobs for the new decade. 

The 20 Best Tech Jobs for the Future

  • 1. Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning Engineer
  • 2. Data Scientist
  • 3. Information Security Analyst
  • 4. Software Engineer
  • 5. Computer Research Scientist
  • 6. Data Analyst
  • 7. IT Manager
  • 8. Database Administrator
  • 9. Web Developer
  • 10. Computer Hardware Engineer
  • 11. Computer Systems Analyst
  • 12. DevOps Engineer
  • 13. Computer Network Architect
  • 14. Java Developer
  • 15. Tech Sales Engineer
  • 16. PHP Developer
  • 17. Python Developer
  • 18. Network and Systems Administrator
  • 19. Mobile Application Developer
  • 20. Web Designer

1. Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning Engineer

  • Average Base Salary: $146,085
  • Job Growth, 2015-18: 344%

AI/Machine Learning Engineers are in high demand as the tech industry shifts its focus toward the emerging field of automation. Thus, AI and Machine Learning gigs are among the best tech jobs for the future by most measures.These developers spend their time using big data to train models involved in natural language processing, economic forecasting, and image recognition.

2. Data Scientist

  • Average Salary, 2019: $120,495
  • Job Growth, 2018-19: 56%

Organizations and businesses are collecting more and more data every day. That’s why it’s more important than ever to have experts skilled in data science. Data Scientists spend their working hours compiling, cleaning, and presenting data for organizations to make informed decisions. The number of job openings for Data Science is huge and shows no sign of slowing. With this high demand, data scientist is an easy choice for any list of best tech jobs.  

3. Information Security Analyst

  • Median Salary, 2018: $98,350
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 32% (much faster than average)

Computers and digital information continue to encompass nearly everything in the business world. That’s why we need Information Security Analysts. They work on the front lines to protect information systems from cyber threats. Security Analysts are essential to protecting user data and sensitive company information. They ensure that our data is safe and that companies utilize effective protective systems.

Many employers still expect a bachelor’s degree in computer science, but it’s possible to land an information security analyst position without a degree.

4. Software Engineer

  • Median Salary, 2018: $105,590
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 21% (much faster than average)

Software engineering is one of the most versatile tech jobs on this list. Think about it– you probably use the work of software engineers every day. The apps on your phones were developed by software engineers. Your Internet browser was designed by software engineers. In fact, nearly every industry in the world uses some kind of software. This means the demand for software engineers isn’t waning anytime soon.

If you’re interested in this thriving field, there are a number of paths to a career as a software developer. Some developers opt for a bachelor’s degree or even a master’s in computer science. But more and more tech companies and other employers are becoming less interested in applicants having college degrees in computer science. Instead, many employers focus on the need for practical experience in developing software applications.

5. Computer Research Scientist

  • Median Salary, 2018: $118,370
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 16% (much faster than average)

Computer Research Science is one of the most lucrative and rewarding careers in tech. Computer Research Scientists are at the forefront of technological innovation. They research and discover new ways to do amazing things with computer technology and help drive progress.

6. Data Analyst

  • Median Salary, 2019: $118,370 
  • Job Outlook, 2018-28: 16% (much faster than average)

In today’s business world, data is king. That’s why more and more roles in companies have a heavy focus on data and making data useful. One such role is that of data analyst. Data analysts have to be skilled at interpreting data. They ensure data accuracy and find the best ways to use that data.

7. IT Manager

  • Median Salary, 2018: $142,530
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 11% (much faster than average)

Another fantastic tech job is in IT management. IT managers focus on the information technology sector of a company. They plan and coordinate everything this department does. They also look for ways to improve IT systems. IT managers are typically in charge of a highly skilled technical team.

8. Database Administrator

  • Median Salary, 2018: $90,070
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 9% (faster than average)

Database Administrators, similarly to data scientists, work with large volumes of digital information and help clients manage data. These professionals also maintain databases and ensure that computer systems run as efficiently and effectively as possible. 

9. Web Developer

  • Median Salary, 2018: $69,430
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 13% (much faster than average)

Web developers use programming languages and frameworks to design, build, and maintain websites and web applications. The internet is here to stay, so the need for qualified web developers will continue to grow for the foreseeable future. Even better, Web Developers bring in handsome salaries. Entry level developers also command impressive wages. Web developers are behind every website and web application you use, including this one.

10. Computer Hardware Engineer

  • Median Salary, 2018: $114,600 
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 6% (as fast as average)

Computer Hardware Engineers design, build, and repair the physical circuitry that makes computers work. And while software is the face of the tech industry, tech companies still need hardware professionals. Hardware engineers are well-paid, and the position offers a hands-on approach that’s attractive to many people.

11. Computer Systems Analyst

  • Median Salary, 2018: $88,740
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 9% (faster than average)

Computer Systems Analysts are essential because technology changes rapidly. These professionals analyze computer systems for companies and perform updates to make systems more efficient. 

12. DevOps Engineer

  • Average Salary, 2019: $111,311
  • Job Outlook: N/A

DevOps engineers primarily work with the production of software, overseeing code releases to make sure everything goes smoothly. Their job is to find where the software is inefficient and ensure that everything runs as efficiently as possible. They do this by monitoring the software, troubleshooting it, and editing or configuring it if need be.The best part is, most tech companies are now open to remote work as telecommuting becomes easier. This makes DevOps Engineer one of the highest paying remote jobs in the market.

13. Computer Network Architect

  • Median Salary, 2018: $109,020
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 5% (as fast as average)

Computer Network Architects design complex digital systems and cloud computing infrastructure for big and small businesses. This field helps companies function in the digital era. Computer Network Architects command a high salary and good job prospects.

14. Java Developer

  • Average Salary, 2019: $103,464
  • Job Outlook: N/A

Another one of the best tech jobs around today is in Java development. Java is a robust programming language. It’s extremely useful for finance, building Android apps, research, big data, and much more. A Java developer uses their Java skills to develop and test programs. Since Java is used so widely in a variety of big industries, opportunities in the field will continue to rise.

15. Tech Sales Engineer

  • Median Salary, 2018: $101,420
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 6% (as fast as average)

Tech sales is a great way to start a technology career without learning to code. For some people, especially former salespeople, this position can be highly rewarding and quite lucrative. Plus, the demand for qualified sales engineers is very high. Tech sales professionals enjoy good salaries, commission, and straight-forward education options, often with job guarantees. 

16. PHP Developer

  • Average Salary: $86,616
  • Job Outlook: N/A

PHP developers use their skills to improve websites and software. Using their knowledge, they can add features and new functions to websites.  They do this to make programs more dynamic.

17. Python Developer

  • Average Base Salary: $85,571
  • Job Outlook: N/A

Python is another extremely popular and widely used programming language, and Python development is one of the best tech jobs today. A Python developer creates and test code for a variety of apps, software, and systems. They work with data mining, cloud and web development, machine learning, and more. They also update and evaluate programs on a regular basis.

18. Network and Systems Administrator

  • Median Salary, 2018: $82,050
  • BLS Job Outlook, 2018-28: 5% (as fast as average)

Network and Systems Administrators are in-demand today in virtually every industry in the country. Every business utilizes systems and networks. As a result, businesses need trained professionals to manage these vital and complex systems. Network and Systems Administrators earn high salaries, even compared to other technology jobs.

19. Mobile Application Developer

  • Average Salary, 2019: $73,034
  • Job Outlook: N/A

Mobile Application Development is an exciting tech field that demands creativity and keen problem solving skills. Do you have an idea for a new app that will offer entertainment, convenience, or some other value? Then consider mobile app development, since we’re all waiting for the next great app!

20. Web Designer

  • Average Salary, 2019: $64,030
  • Job Outlook: N/A

Web designers, like web developers, work with websites and web applications. However, the position is oriented towards the visual aspects of site building. It makes web design an attractive option for creative people. Web design is a broad career path, but there are plenty of opportunities in the job market.

Overview of the UK’s IT industry

Now considered a key industry within the UK’s fast-growing digital sector, skilled graduates can choose from the range of information technology (IT) careers on offer

What areas of IT can I work in?

With one million people employed in the UK’s IT industry, now is a great time to specialise in an area that interests you. If you possess the relevant knowledge and technical skills, you could work in:

  • applications development
  • computer forensics
  • content management
  • cyber security and risk management
  • data analysis and analytics
  • game development
  • geographical information systems (GIS)
  • hardware engineering
  • information management
  • IT consultancy (business and technical)
  • IT sales
  • multimedia programming
  • software engineering (designing, building, developing and testing)
  • systems/network management
  • technical support
  • telecommunications
  • web design/development.

For instance, your job may involve creating applications or systems, solving problems with technology or supporting those who use it. Employers in the IT industry also require graduates to work in their business, marketing, human resources (HR) and finance functions.

Many IT professionals also choose to work outside the sector, such as in the IT departments of retail, finance, manufacturing and public sector organisations.

To explore the various careers in this wide ranging sector, see IT graduate jobs.

Who are the main IT graduate employers?

Large and global companies include:

  • Accenture
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Capgemini
  • Cisco
  • Cognizant
  • Facebook
  • FDM
  • Fujitsu
  • Google
  • IBM
  • Infosys
  • Intel
  • Microsoft
  • Rockstar Games
  • Samsung
  • Softcat
  • Ubisoft.

Major telecommunications companies include:

  • BT Group
  • EE
  • Sky UK
  • TalkTalk
  • Telefónica UK (O2)
  • Three
  • Virgin Media
  • Vodafone.

As the sector is fast-moving and dynamic, there are many smaller businesses and tech start-ups that are worth seeking out for entry-level job opportunities. For example, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the IT industry provide a range of specialist services and typically offer consultancy and technical roles.

IT professionals are also employed to work in many other job sectors, including:

  • Financial services – recruiters such as Barclays, Citigroup, Deloitte, J.P. Morgan and Morgan Stanley are looking for IT graduates to work with the latest technologies. These include jobs with a focus on artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality software development, robotics process automation, UX or analytics.
  • Manufacturing – multinational engineering companies in the oil, pharmaceuticals, automotive and energy industries need IT specialists to work on the processes and technologies that underpin their operations. For instance, aerospace and defence innovator MBDA requires software engineers with numerous programming language skills.
  • Public sector – local authorities, central government and the NHS all recruit IT professionals to keep their systems running smoothly, deliver projects and analyse data efficiently so it can be used to make major decisions.
  • Retail – major online and high street retailers such as Amazon, Arcadia, Tesco, TJX Europe and John Lewis look to technology graduates to develop new systems and apps, while rolling out technological solutions that satisfy their customers’ needs.

Routes into the IT industry include apprenticeships, internships and graduate schemes.

Where can I find IT jobs?

Most employers expect you to have gained some technical knowledge of IT, although any relevant work experience or internship would be of benefit as you seek to land your first role.

You can search for graduate jobs in IT or visit the websites of major IT and telecommunications companies to browse job opportunities. Vacancies for entry-level and graduate jobs can also be found on specialist IT recruitment sites including:

  • Computerjobs.com
  • CWJobs
  • Dice
  • Purely IT
  • Technojobs

IT jobs in the public sector can be found on websites such as:

  • jobsgopublic
  • NHS Jobs

In addition, you can look for IT vacancies on general jobs websites. While the number of opportunities within IT companies may be relatively small, employers across all sectors require graduates to fill IT and computing roles in their organisations.

Another option is to find an IT apprenticeship, as you’ll be able to learn on the job while studying towards a recognised certification.

How do I apply for IT roles?

An IT CV, also known as a technical CV, can be used to apply for roles such as web developer, IT consultant, software tester or applications developer.

Include an introductory paragraph that mentions your technical expertise and experience and incorporate a ‘key skills’ heading that allows for more detail when discussing technical competencies.

While you might be tempted to showcase all your technical abilities at once, ensure that you highlight relevant skills first and foremost. You should also bear in mind that the document will need to be understood by non-technical people such as HR managers.

Use this CV template to focus on your:

  • ability to maintain existing software applications and develop new ones
  • experience of applying technical standards, theories and techniques
  • problem-solving capabilities
  • communication skills.

What about technology graduate schemes?

Many major companies run graduate schemes focusing on IT and technology. These are structured training programmes for new and recent graduates, usually lasting between one and two years. Explore graduate schemes in more detail.

Companies offering IT and technology graduate schemes include:

  • British Airways
  • EY
  • Morrisons
  • PwC
  • Tesco

Visit the recruitment websites of large businesses to find more opportunities. You can also search for IT graduate schemes.

What’s it like working in IT?

Graduates entering the IT industry in the UK can expect:

  • A higher than average starting salary – according to High Fliers’ The Graduate Market in 2019 report, starting salaries for technology jobs with organisations featuring in The Times Top 100 Graduate Employers have risen from the national median of £30,000 (which has remained the same since 2015) to £31,500.
  • Long working hours – employers tend to emphasise completing a task or project over maintaining standard 9am-5pm office hours.
  • Opportunities to work abroad – many large IT companies have branches or subsidiaries in other countries.
  • The chance to be self-employed – it’s not unusual for graduates to go freelance, work as a contractor or even start their own tech companies.
  • A constantly changing industry – as new technologies and software are developed, it’s important to keep your skills up to date to remain at the top of your profession.

To find out more about salaries and working conditions for specific roles, explore IT job profiles.

What are the IT skills shortages?

Representing around 850 member organisations ranging from SMEs to FTSE 100 companies, techUK has declared the UK a world leader in technology. However, in order to remain at the forefront of innovation and research and development (R&D), it highlighted the need for the UK’s growing digital skills gaps to be addressed.

Nimmi Patel, techUK’s skills and diversity programme manager, explains, ‘The UK’s tech sector is growing at 2.5 times the rate of the rest of the economy creating exciting jobs that require a range of skills and talent – but the UK is still facing a major digital skills shortage. In order to effectively prepare our workforce in an ever-changing digital economy, we need to inspire and support people into digital roles.

‘There are a number of vocational and academic pathways that can provide people with the right technical skills to flourish in the industry, but the IT industry needs more than developers and programmers,’ adds Nimmi.

‘It needs people with skills from across the board, such as creativity and critical thinking, meaning that there’s something for everyone. Often there’s a lack of awareness of the career opportunities in IT that exist and how to get to them, so we must do more to demystify the tech sector to students, teachers and parents.’

As one million people work in IT, the government has recently published a piece of research on the subject examining the demand for digital skills. In partnership with Burning Glass, the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) produced a report on No Longer Optional: Employer Demand for Digital Skills (June 2019). It suggested that workers will need to constantly re-evaluate their skills to ensure they’re prepared for changing future roles while specific digital skills reduce the risk posed by automation.

Find out how you could upgrade your existing skills at IT courses.

What are the IT industry trends?

In its Digital Leaders 2018 report, BCS, The Chartered Institute for IT assessed the capabilities, skills and ethics required by IT organisations in the near-future. It showed that business transformation and organisational change were top priorities for these firms.

Driven by the advancements in digital technologies and the use of data, the report revealed how roles in change management, transformation consultancy and business analysis would be on the increase.

The specific skills identified by these organisations included some that would be fully expected, such as cyber security and cloud, all the way through to emerging sectors and the ‘as a service’ model (for example, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS).

In the survey, only around a sixth of organisations felt they needed bigger budgets – instead they were looking to upskill and train existing staff. Therefore, graduates already in the mindset of learning are well placed to get involved in a field so committed to personal development and on-the-job training.

Other growing career areas include agile methodologies, mobile and application development, the internet of things and artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Manipulation of data is a skill that cannot be overlooked, in its many guises – especially that of the relatively new data scientist role. We’ll also be hearing more about roles in blockchain, a system of delivering information in a fully automated and safe manner.

There are other considerations too. For example, the effect that current or incoming legislation will have on work, such as GDPR-related roles. This would have an implication for big data professionals, who would require skills in AWS, Python, Hadoop, Spark, Cloudera, MongoDB, Hive, Tableau and Java.

Video game careers

Now worth an estimated £3.86billion, the UK’s gaming industry is a resounding success with many game careers available for keen video game enthusiasts to pursue

UK gaming industry trends and statistics

Figures published by the Entertainment Retailers Association (ERA) revealed the UK to be the fifth largest video gaming market in the world in 2018, with the money made from both physical and digital games higher than video and music combined.

Games such as Grand Theft Auto V, Batman: Arkham Knight and Monument Valley have proved to be global hits for UK gaming companies, of which there are currently 2,261, according to Ukie, a trade body representing the industry.

They also found that digital and online, and mobile gaming combined accounts for over £3billion of total software sales, with virtual reality (VR)/augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) among the fastest-developing technologies – especially following the success of Sony’s PlayStation Virtual Reality (PSVR) headset, which is becoming more affordable for casual gamers.

Jobs in the gaming industry

Market intelligence company Newzoo reported that as many as 37.3 million people in the UK play video games. It’s therefore no surprise that this entertainment form is becoming an increasingly popular career choice, with lots of different technical and creative roles available for those with a passion for gaming.

To get started, you’ll need to decide what type of game industry job you’re interested in. Here are the three most common roles on offer:

  • Game artist – Your job is to create concept art, storyboards, and designs for packaging and marketing materials. You’ll need technical ability to master specialist software packages and tools such as ZBrush, Maya, Photoshop, 3DS Max, Substance Painter and Mudbox. Discover what else is needed to be a game artist.
  • Game designer – A senior role that involves coming up with original ideas for games and overseeing the creative process. This could be across a number of platforms, including mobile, console and VR/AR. Game design requires a mix of technical and creative skills to develop and test your creations as you may need to work with a range of programming languages and software packages including C#, C++ and Python. Explore how to start your career as a game designer.
  • Game developer/Game programmer – You’re responsible for taking the ideas of the designers and writing the code required to build a playable game. It’s vital that you’re able to understand and follow instructions to bring the creative vision to life. You’ll typically work in a team headed by a lead programmer. A knowledge of game programming languages and specialisation in a particular platform, such as PC, mobile or consoles, would aid your progression. You could focus on an area of programming such as AI, audio, controls and interface, game physics or 3D engine development. Learn more about how to be a game developer or software or applications developer. If you’re interested in coding games, see IT courses.

Other creative and technical specialists

  • Animator – Collaborating with teams of artists, designers and programmers, you’ll be responsible for animating the characters and other elements of the in-game environment in a way that matches the overall visual style. You’ll require artistic ability and knowledge of technical computer packages such as Maya and 3DS Max. You’ll also need to bear in mind the technical strengths and limitations of the game’s graphics engine and the platform it’s being developed for. Find out how to become an animator.
  • Audio engineer – Music, sound effects and character voices all play a key role in immersing players in the game world. You’ll work with producers and designers to create and mix the soundtrack. A technical understanding of audio recording equipment and software is essential, but you should also be creative and imaginative as your responsibilities may extend to composing music, producing sound effects, and auditioning actors for voice roles. This is similar to being a sound technician in the broadcasting and film industries.
  • IT technical support officer – Technical support officers link video game publishers to their audience. You’ll be the point of contact for gamers who have issues with the product. Communication skills are essential as you’ll need to listen to customer complaints and questions, understand them and resolve them in a professional manner – whether by phone, email or replying to forum posts. Get more information about working as an IT technical support officer.
  • QA tester – Software testers, or quality assurance (QA) testers, ensure that the product is ready for release. This involves playing the game in various scenarios and on different hardware configurations to check for bugs, inconsistencies and any other faults. You’ll need to be able to work methodically, concentrate for long periods and have a great attention to detail. Patience is vital as you’ll replay sections of the game repeatedly in your search for anything that needs fixing or improving. You’ll also have to communicate your findings and suggest solutions. Explore the role of a software tester.

Non-technical roles

If you want to work in the video game industry but aren’t interested in technical IT jobs, there are still lots of options. These include:

  • Game producer – As well as overseeing the game’s development, you’ll also be responsible for project management from a business and financial perspective.
  • Translator – To localise scripts, in-game text and documentation for sale in international markets. Find out more about becoming a translator.
  • Writer – To write scripts, in-game text and instruction manuals. While sometimes known as a narrative designer, you won’t typically be heavily involved in the game design process, but will be tasked with creating a story, adding depth to the characters and working within the overall game design structure. Discover how to become a writer.

When the game is finished and ready to be sold to consumers, publishers need people with skills in marketing, advertising and PR as well as sales.

Another alternative – if you’re an incredibly skilled player – is to explore the possibility of becoming a professional gamer. The eSports scene continues to grow in popularity, as well as in terms of the money that can be earned.

How to find video game jobs

Job vacancies in the UK game industry are regularly listed on studio websites such as:

  • Codemasters
  • Creative Assembly
  • Electronic Arts
  • Jagex
  • Rockstar Games
  • Rocksteady
  • Sports Interactive
  • Team 17
  • Ubisoft

While many of the bigger game publishers take on graduates, specific gaming graduate schemes are harder to come by compared to other job sectors. Instead, having gained some form of work experience is crucial for landing an entry level role with the likes of Rockstar Games, Codemasters, Ubisoft and Jagex.

Despite the well-publicised commercial success of larger firms, the majority of employers in the UK gaming industry are small and medium-sized businesses. You can explore this further by making use of Ukie’s map of game developers and publishers.

You can also search for vacancies on specialist game industry job websites – for example, GamesJobsDirect and GamesIndustry.biz.

Breaking into the gaming industry

To boost your chances of success, attend gaming events and join forums to hear about the latest opportunities. Making contacts is key to working in the industry and you’ll need to be armed with a portfolio that showcases your talents. To build your experience, offer to test early versions of games and have a go at designing your own game.

Many gaming professionals choose to work on a freelance basis, so you could explore how to go about this by reading the ScreenSkills Freelance Toolkit designed specifically for those working in the screen industries.

Don’t despair if you’ve decided on this career while still at university. Adam Boyne and two of his fellow students from the University of Hull decided to set up their own company after coming up with the idea in their final year.

‘When I was looking at universities, I didn’t even consider game development as an option,’ explains Adam. ‘I was always told it was too competitive and that I couldn’t get in, but now I’m running my own games company and received funding from the UK Games Fund. It’s just about hard work and dedication, but anyone can break into the games industry.’

Adam advises students to first learn how to code, as he only acquired these skills through his degree course. He also took part in a game jam, which revealed to him how much he enjoyed making games. By grasping opportunities at university, this helped him to determine his career path.

Find out more about the skills, qualifications and work experience you need to work in gaming by reading the information provided by UK-based ScreenSkills.

Gaming apprenticeships

As this industry is notoriously tough to break into, gaming apprenticeships offer a structured entry route, combining classroom-based learning with on-the-job training.

There are game developer apprenticeships for those looking to start out in a development position. Gaming apprenticeships are also available for roles such as game tester, visual effects artist, software development technician and animator.

If you can’t find any opportunities with the major game publishers, specialist recruitment companies such as Aardvark Swift often advertise apprenticeships in video gaming.

You can search for all available gaming apprenticeships at GOV.UK, while you can read more about other IT apprenticeships.

What’s the difference between IT Management jobs?

Management Information Systems, Information Technology Management, Information Systems and Business Analytics, Information Systems, and Technology Management jobs and degrees have several notable difference. Here you will find summations of a few popular career choices to help you decide what you want to do, and what degree might be best for you.

Note: On average, employers prefer seeing five years experience for a jobs in IT Management. A master’s degree can help offset some required experience time, but the choice ultimately belongs to the company to decide what they will consider as a qualified candidate. But first, you need to know what exactly you want to do, and how to get there.

Management Information Systems and IT Management jobs:

MIS or IT managers are familiar with all areas of the databases and how to best organize the information. Being able to multitask and see the “big picture” is important. Management Information Systems professional, generally speaking, are not as limited to digital data collection and organization as IT professionals might be. In other words, since some companies have older information systems including hardcopy files, etc., the MIS professional may manage these systems as well.

Database architects individuals are involved in the creation of the database. Since they are responsible for planning the layout for the communications network, a degree in computer engineering is desirable. They can be responsible for networks as small as a few offices, to as large as multi-location global offices. Their jobs can range from big picture creation of the network to the detailed organization of wires and cables within the workplace.

Some architects manage the system once it is created; others may turn the system over to a manager while they move on to another project. Communication is vitally important since the architects work closely with the security analysts when constructing the system.

IT-degrees-2.jpg

Due to growth and changing technology, architects are forward thinkers who can anticipate the difficulties posed by the future needs of the networks. Architects are often required to have 5–10 years of IT administrative or IT management experience. The median pay for IT managers is around $90,000.

Network and Business Administrators are largely responsible for the day-to-day operations rather than the big picture. The administrators are more detail oriented than visionary, though a proclivity for both is desirable. An undergraduate degree in computer or electrical engineering is best. This job is a great starting point towards becoming an architect or manager. Being able to multitask is very important, as most problems occur on multiple levels. The medium pay is around $70,000.

Computer Systems Analysts work closely with Systems Architects. It is their job to maximize efficiency of an already created system, or help an architect anticipate future complications. once the system has been created. Since their main job is to understand current problems and predict future needs, they need to have strong problem solving skills. They are heavily involved in increasing the efficiency of the system. The median salary is just shy of $80,000.

Information Security Analysts are specialized in making sure that information is safe, secure, and protected from cyber attack. Individuals interested in security should ideally have strong backgrounds in computer programming and web development, as most security breaches occur via online invasion. They are forward thinking and able to anticipate problems rather than just reacting to them.

Кибер-безопасности

The motto for these individuals is “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” Information Security Analysts often aren’t tied to one company. They may work in consulting firms and be hired out by individual businesses. The job growth in this field is significantly faster than most with expected job growth being almost 40% within the next 10 years. The median income is $80,000.

Which undergraduate degrees are best for someone desiring an MBA in Management Information Systems?

It depends on what role you want to serve in a company. Since IT managers are heavily involved in the software and hardware of the systems, a background in computer engineering, electrical engineering, computer programming, or web development are great choices.

Technology Careers

A technology job can be classified as any position that works with the scientific, mathematical, and computational aspects of engineering or the applied sciences. Although we often speak of the high-tech industry as if it were a monolith, it is actually a diverse field with many different professions, including computer engineering, web design, and game development. The requirements for employment vary from company to company. Larger companies like Google, for example, often prefer applicants who have earned at least a bachelor’s degree. Conversely, many startups are concerned less with credentials and more with what hard skills an applicant has mastered.

Several tech careers require professionals to be independent, self-starters; they must be able to solve complex problems on their own. Others work on teams, owning one part of a larger program or piece of software. All technology professionals must have the ability to work with others and effectively communicate issues and solutions with a system in understandable terms.

Technology Employment by State

Despite the rise of the so-called “gig economy” and the number of people working remotely, many jobs still require professionals to work on-site in a company office or be employed under a certain state. While California is number one in the nation for technology jobs, quality tech jobs exist all across the United States.

Educational Paths to Careers in Technology

Computer science jobs are about skills and information. A bachelor’s degree is often the standard academic credential that employers look for with technology jobs. However, those with an associate degree or a training certificate may still find quality employment. Some employers may also consider hiring graduates of “coding boot camps, although they typically require further on-the-job training.

Here are some of the most popular college majors, for two-year or four-year degrees, that lead to technology careers:Computer Engineering

Students focus on computer science, engineering, mathematics, and physics. Graduates of a computer engineering program go on to become software developers, computer programmers, and systems engineers.Computer Science

Students are introduced to programming along with the science and math of modern computing. Students learn languages such as Java, C++, and Octave. Jobs for graduates include software architect, application software designer, and programmer.Game Design and Development

The course of study includes game history, analysis, and aesthetics, along with a focus on 2D- and 3D-level design. Students may study drawing, modeling, animation, film, and music. There is also a strong emphasis on design documentation and play-testing. Future career paths include working as a game designer, system designer or technical designer.Information Security Systems

The major includes coursework in information assurance, information security, network design and engineering, and business continuity. Students will learn how to protect organizational assets from threats of all kind. This course of study prepares students for a career as an information security manager, risk assessor, or analyst.Information Technology

Students learn how to design, create, and administer organizational databases. The course of study focuses on managing data information and knowledge bases, as well as assessing the information and data requirements of an organization. Related jobs include information technology (IT) manager, systems administrator, and network engineer.Network Management

The program introduces students to the principal of how to design networks, make technology-adoption and standards decisions, and create cost models for new technology implementations. Career paths include network analyst, network technician, and network systems engineer.Software Engineering

The course work involves software engineering classes, along with computer science, project management, mathematics, and statistics. Students go on to become software engineers, software developers and database analysts.Web Design and Development

Students study how to design, develop, and manage web sites. The course of study involves classes on web-authoring and data processing tools for web development. Jobs for web design majors include web administrator, web designer, and webmaster.

The Ups and Downs of Coding Boot Camps

Coding boot camps are intensive technical training programs that teach students how to write code and build applications. The boot camps usually last eight to 12 weeks, and have become an increasingly popular option among working professionals seeking a fast track to advance their careers.

While coding boot camps can help individuals save time and money compared to programs offered through a four-year college, the effectiveness of such short-term trade schools is debated. Most tech professionals agree that boot camp students do not gain a deep understanding of computer science theory, nor do they have time to focus on more than the coding aspect of technology. In order to be successful in the long run, boot camp graduates will typically require mentorship or on-the-job training, services not often provided at high-growth startup companies.

For the right candidates, however, these programs do have benefits. Graduates of some boot camps earn a higher income after completing the program. Candidates are advised to be 100% committed to changing jobs and pursuing a career in programming, as the demanding schedule required to complete such a boot camp may mean that they have to leave their job.

Experts suggest that interested applicants first try one of the many free coding programs offered online to determine whether they want to pursue programming. Those who choose to commit are also warned to avoid scam sites posing as boot camps by thoroughly researching each program and reviewing its job placement rates and career services.

The TechHire Initiative

TechHire is a White House initiative that seeks to rapidly train workers for well-paying, open technology jobs in months. The initiative is a collaboration of employers, training providers, and workforce and economic development organizations using the resources of universities, community colleges, online courses, and coding boot camps. TechHire is aimed at students who are looking for a nontraditional path to well-paying tech jobs. It also targets underrepresented people, such as women, minorities, veterans, and people with disabilities. This initiative strives to become “the pipeline” the country needs to get these groups into computer science jobs.

Over 50 communities are now participating in the TechHire Initiative to create more training opportunities for tech workers. Several companies, including Microsoft, Flatiron School, and Dev Bootcamp, are expanding their free and low-cost training courses, and approximately 600 employers are recruiting and hiring graduates of these programs.

Distance Learning Opportunities

Distance learning offers traditional and nontraditional students a convenient and affordable way to prepare for information technology and computer science jobs. Online learning is particularly advantageous for people who are already employed full-time and are looking to make a midlife career change. Most colleges and universities have a distance education division that allows students to take individual courses, earn a certificate, or get a degree entirely online. Students can also participate in coding and development boot camps entirely online as a way to grow their skill set and boost their resume.


Technology Certifications

There are hundreds of technology certifications for IT professionals. Popular ones include Project Management Professional (PMP), Microsoft, Cisco, and Oracle certifications. Within the industry, there is some debate about their utility. On the plus side, pursuing a certification helps professionals learn a new technique or program and demonstrates to an employer that they have mastered a specific skill set. Those who are skeptical, however, feel that some people try to substitute actual industry knowledge with technology certificates. Other critics argue that technology changes so quickly today that knowledge gained via a certificate program is quickly outdated. Nobody disputes, however, that technology careers depend on education and training, no matter what its form.

Women in Tech

Women now make up nearly half of America’s workforce, and the number of female students earning degrees in higher education continues to soar. According to The Atlantic, in 2015, 72.5% of females who had graduated high school went on to enroll in a two-year or four-year college, compared to 65.8% of men. Yet, while women now account for nearly half of the students earning advanced degrees in law, medical, and business fields – all historically dominated by men – they are still underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields. Research shows that women comprise just 36.8% of entry-level workers in the tech field.

Fortunately, dozens of companies and organizations are now working to address the “pipeline problem”, which is that many young girls are not introduced to computer science at an early age. Several big companies, including Microsoft Corp., have launched mentorship programs and scholarships specifically targeting young female students studying STEM fields. Other firms, such as Facebook and Pinterest Inc., follow the Rooney Rule, requiring at least one female or minority applicant to be interviewed for a job opening. Many tech companies in recent years have also begun providing better parental-leave benefits to accommodate workers trying to balance their career and family lives.

Career Paths in Technology

There are dozens of computer jobs and endless career paths individuals can take as a technology professional, all of which depend on multiple factors including specific training, interests, and job requirements and responsibilities. Below are some of the most prominent career paths, along with the mean average salary, the degree or certificate requirements, and its growth opportunities for the future. All data is provided by the U.S. Labor Department’s Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Tech Careers

Computer and Information Research Scientists

  • Mean Annual Salary: $118,370
  • Degree/Certification Required: Master’s in computer science or a related field, though a bachelor’s degree may be sufficient in government jobs.
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 19%
  • Number of People Employed: 27,900

Computer researchers create new ways of computing and are charged with finding innovative uses for existing technology. They are employed in business, medicine, and science.

Computer Network Architects

  • Mean Annual Salary: $109,020
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree and professional experience
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 6%
  • Number of People Employed: 162,700

Computer network architects design and build data communication networks, such as local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and intranets. This includes small connections between offices to capabilities like cloud infrastructures that service multiple customers.

Computer Programmers

  • Mean Annual Salary: $88,280
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): -7%
  • Number of People Employed: 273,600

Programmers write and test code to ensure that computer applications and software programs function as they should. They work with plans formulated by software developers and engineers and turn them into instructions for computers.

Computer Systems Analysts

  • Mean Annual Salary: $88,740
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 9%
  • Number of People Employed: 654,900

Computer systems analysts design information system solutions to help organizations operate more efficiently. They work as liaisons between business and information technology (IT), merging the two.

Database Administrators (DBAs)

  • Mean Annual Salary: $90,070
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 11%
  • Number of People Employed: 119,500

DBAs work with special software to store and organize a company’s important data. They ensure the data is organized, accessible by authorized individuals, and safe from unauthorized access.

Information Security Analysts

  • Mean Annual Salary: $98,350
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 28%
  • Number of People Employed: 100,000

Information security analysts create plans to protect an organization’s computer networks and systems. They are the first line of defense against cyberattacks.

Network and Computer Systems Administrators
Computer and Information Research Scientists
Computer Network ArchitectsComputer ProgrammersComputer Systems AnalystsDatabase Administrators (DBAs)Information Security AnalystsNetwork and Computer Systems Administrators

  • Mean Annual Salary: $82,050
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 6%
  • Number of People Employed: 391,300

Network and computer systems administrators are responsible for the day-to-day operation of computer networks at a given organization.

Software Developers

  • Mean Annual Salary: $105,590
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 24%
  • Number of People Employed: 1,256,200

Software developers develop the computer programs that allow people to use computers and other devices as effective tools. They also develop the underlying systems that control networks.

Web Developers

  • Mean Annual Salary: $69,430
  • Degree/Certification Required: Associate degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 15%
  • Number of People Employed: 162,900

Web developers design and create websites, work with the site’s look and its technical aspects, and are responsible for web analytics.

Alternative Tech Careers

While a good portion of technology jobs are related to programming and computers, there are other professions beyond computer science, including certain types of writers and artists, who now work in such a way that their vocation is intertwined with technology. Here are some examples of alternative technology careers.

Audio Workers

  • Mean Annual Salary: $43,660
  • Degree/Certification Required: Most have a postsecondary education
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 8%
  • Number of People Employed: 134,300

Audio-visual and multimedia collections specialists prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education. They may be involved with recording, cataloguing, and filing materials. The profession also includes broadcast and sound engineering technicians who work with radio programs, television broadcasts, concerts, sound recordings, and movies.

Computer Support Specialists

  • Mean Annual Salary: $53,470
  • Degree/Certification Required: Varies
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 11%
  • Number of People Employed: 835,300

Computer support specialists offer advice on using computer software or equipment. Some of them support information technology (IT) employees, while others assist non-IT users who are having computer problems.

Multimedia Artists and Animators

  • Mean Annual Salary: $72,520
  • Degree/Certification Required: Bachelor’s degree
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 8%
  • Number of People Employed: 73,700

Multimedia artists and animators create animation and visual effects for all kinds of media, including television, movies, video games, and online digital media.

Technical Writers

  • Mean Annual Salary: $71,850
  • Degree/Certification Required: A college degree is usually required, plus experience with a technical subject.
  • Projected Job Growth Outlook (2014-24): 11%
  • Number of People Employed: 52,400

Technical writers write copy for instruction manuals, how-to guides, journal articles, and other documents to explain technical matters to readers.

Meet a Tech Professional

DR. CHAD MOURNING
OWNER, AFFINE TECHNOLOGIES

Chad Mourning - Assistant Professor - Ohio University | LinkedIn

Please summarize your academic and professional experience.

I received a BS in computer science from Ohio University in 2006, and immediately became a National Science Foundation GK-12 fellow while working on my master’s. I received my master’s in computer science, also from Ohio University in 2008. At this point I entered the PhD program and received a PhD in electrical engineering and computer science in 2015. In 2011 my labmate and I founded our own company, Affine Technologies, primarily as a way for the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center to pay us while circumventing the university student employment limit of 20 hours a week. In 2012 we joined a business accelerator and were awarded $20,000 to start a business based around our graduate research, 3D Virtual World-based data visualizations for unmanned aerial vehicles.

What factors should students take into account when considering a degree in technology?

A degree in computer science is basically guaranteed employment, even for mediocre students. Demand is so high that Ohio University actually has trouble graduating seniors before they are offered jobs and drop out. That said, being a “good” computer scientist is not easy, so getting the “best” jobs can be quite competitive. Also, we get a lot of people interested in video games that apply for our major (it’s partly why I decided to be a computer scientist), but students need to realize you will not to get the skillset to do these sort of things immediately, so be prepared to stick it out. Also, the demographics are very skewed. At Ohio University, the ratio of male-to-female computer science students is about 9:1; non-Asian minorities are also underrepresented, so special assistance (both financial and academic) is often available for these demographics.

What do you find most fulfilling about working in technology?

Being a computer scientist, or programmer in general, makes it very easy to chase your other passions. Whether it’s physics, art, or library sciences, they all need programmers. Also, it harnesses the power of creation. You program something and immediately see its effects – especially if you are in the computer graphics field like I am.

What are the greatest day-to-day challenges you face?

Many people do not fully appreciate that the purpose of graduate school, and the university in general, is to create new knowledge. Generally, a master’s or PhD allows students to carry out independent research and come up with novel solutions to problems on their own, run experiments, and analyze the results. The hardest part of my 13 years in college was coming up with a truly novel idea for my PhD. Implementing, testing it, and analyzing the results were the easy part. Whether you are a painter or a programmer, you can’t be taught how to be creative.

What type of person excels in technology?

Hyper-rational individuals make the best computer scientists. Any problem, no matter how complicated, can be broken down into smaller and smaller subproblems until you end up with, effectively, a series of “yes or no” questions. That’s not to say intuition isn’t helpful, but being able to analyze your problem is more important. You will spend more time debugging your programs than writing your first draft; being able to diagnose, find, and fix your problems quickly makes your life and your boss’s life much easier.

What additional advice can you give to someone pursuing a technology career?

You will not learn what you need to know in the classroom. Your coursework will teach you how to learn what you need to know on your own. On your first day of work, you will be asked to do things you’ve never done before. Google is your friend, unless you are on the bleeding edge of research (which you will be as a PhD student), someone has had your problem before, and the answer is probably online. Similarly, if you use the time wisely, while you are in school you will learn just as much, if not more, outside the classroom as in it. Have side projects. Go to your professional organization (IEEE or ACM) meetings. Talk shop with like-minded individuals. And remember, people will only care about what you do as much as you do.

Additional Resources

Whether you are a new college graduate or a seasoned IT professional, these sites will help you find jobs, expand your skills, and network with others in the tech fields.

Tech Career Job Sites

  • Dice.com: With an easy-to-search database, this site is a “career hub” for IT professionals looking for work.
  • iCrunchData: This site specializes in people looking for information technology jobs in big data, analytics, and tech.
  • ITJobPro.com: Users can browse lists of the latest tech and engineering jobs, while also purusing tech industry news.
  • CrunchBoard: This job board is run by the well-respected tech news site TechCrunch. Jobs are cross-posted to the newsletter and main site.
  • TechCareers: Operated by Beyond.com, this site offers access to job listings, educational tools, and networking opportunities.

Continuing Education in Tech

  • CompTIA: Continuing Education (CE) programs through CompTIA are designed to help people grow their IT careers, become certified in various skills, and keep their certifications current.
  • Florida Institute of Technology: The CE program provides job skills training, career enhancement, and professional enrichment training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
  • RailsGuides: Programmers and web developers can begin learning the programming language Ruby on Rails through this site.
  • Coursera: By partnering with top universities and organizations worldwide, Coursera offers classes in programming, web design, etc., to improve your skills.
  • Codewars: This collective helps programmers improve their skills by training with other coders on real code challenges. Languages include Ruby, Java, CoffeeScript, and more.

Professional Organization for Tech Careers

  • Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP): Student and professional members of AITP have access to a career center and resources designed to advance their IT careers.
  • The Association for Women in Computing (AWC): AWC provides women in the tech field with resources and networking opportunities to advance their careers. Member chapters work together to encourage women to work in computer science and technology.
  • BDPA: This community for African Americans working in information technology provides networking opportunities and professional development for its members.
  • The Associate of Software Professionals (ASP): This professional association encourages members to work with each other and other professionals to keep abreast of the current advancements in software.

Jobs for Those Whose Careers Are on Hold Because of Coronavirus

Workers of temporarily closed businesses can look for employment – and income – in these fields.

THE REACTION TO THE coronavirus, or COVID-19, has left many employees either with less or no work or nervous about the finances needed to manage through the upcoming weeks or months while our nation copes with a pandemic. If you are facing job reduction or elimination due to safety concerns related to the coronavirus, look to identify and secure a role that meets your qualifications and availability.

Delivery/Fulfillment

Amazon announced its intent to hire 100,000 new temporary driving, fulfillment and distribution professionals throughout the U.S. to support the surge in delivery demands. They even pledged to increase their average hourly wage by $2 per hour. To find out if there are roles available near you, go here, and also look at local online job boards and community announcements to get current updates on regional hiring.

While Amazon is a clear leader in delivery and fulfillment opportunities, they are not alone in their hiring needs. Businesses of all sizes are exploring or promoting delivery services as a means to stay afloat during closures in support of social distancing. Start with your local grocery stores, pet supply stores, drugstores, convenience stores and restaurants to see if they are adding to their delivery and curbside drive-up services.

In addition to drivers, they may need temporary help with unloading shipments of supplies, restocking shelves, manning busy phone lines, maintaining cleanliness of stores, technology support or recording new products and sales in their databases and billing systems.

Support for Those Who Provide Essential Services or Are Working Remotely

Health care workers and others who provide essential services, like groceries, emergency services, pharmacy work and banking are working more hours than ever. In addition to being very busy, many may have lost their child care options as schools and day cares close. If you are healthy and able to provide child care, there are thousands of families that require in-home help.

Additionally, these employees may be required to work extra hours – so providing grocery shopping, cleaning, yard work and other at-home support would enable them to manage the increased work demands. Even people who are working their regular jobs from home likely need a hand with domestic duties. You can ask around, look online and even check with temporary care service companies like Care.com to identify opportunities.

Security Services

Many companies hire security guards to keep stores and offices safe from looting or break-ins during a shutdown. Additionally, grocery stores and hospitals may use increased security to keep things calm during times of panic or to manage crowds. You can check with local businesses directly to ask what company they use to hire contract security guards. You can also look online for companies that provide security guard services.

Health Care/Health Operations

During times of crisis, physical and mental wellness are paramount. There are obvious needs for health care professionals and others who support health care operations, but there is also demand for virtual service providers. Virtual mental wellness companies offer a range of options to support people during stressful and uncertain times. Also, there are telemedicine companies that support online health care options.

While you cannot become a doctor, nurse or therapist overnight, you may be able to provide administrative, operational or customer support temporarily for locally based companies that are experiencing a surge in demand right now.

Online Job Boards

Most online job boards can be sorted to display the roles recently posted. As an example, a search of LinkedIn’s new jobs posted in the last 24 hours that are contract or temporary show close to 9,000 new roles nationally. Some titles include copywriter, seasonal product investigations, assistant/coordinator, benefits enrollments, sales and data entry. In general, these roles will likely support daily operation of essential services’ (food, bank, health care, veterinary, medicine) increased demands arising out of the pandemic or remote work.

As always, when you seek out employment, it is critical to be professional, flexible and demonstrate that you are a good hire. Start by asking your network if they know of any opportunities. Next, prepare a resume or an outline of your work history and skills to facilitate the screening and hiring process. Also, secure at least two to three references who can speak to your honesty, work ethic and commitment. Finally, it is always OK to be politely persistent. Many of the decision-makers for these roles will be very busy, so diplomatically following up and responding quickly will go a long way toward securing a role.

13 Highest Paying Technology Careers

Smiling young man working on laptop in home office

Technology careers are on the rise.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), computer occupations are expected to grow about 12% from 2018 to 2028. Some specific technology jobs will see even greater growth, as high as 32%.

If you enjoy technology and have a strong knack for computer operations and networks, a technology career provides a great future.

Let’s explore this fascinating and ever-changing career field and learn about some of the highest paying technology jobs that are currently available.

Technology careers are on the rise.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), computer occupations are expected to grow about 12% from 2018 to 2028. Some specific technology jobs will see even greater growth, as high as 32%.

If you enjoy technology and have a strong knack for computer operations and networks, a technology career provides a great future.

Let’s explore this fascinating and ever-changing career field and learn about some of the highest paying technology jobs that are currently available.

Technology Careers: A Summary

Why Should You Work in a Technology Field?

There are many reasons you should work in the tech industry. Not only is it one of the most active and evolving fields on the planet, it offers a high-quality income and shows strong growth. In other words, you’ll have a fulfilling career with great pay that won’t disappear any time soon.

First of all, technology, at least right now, are the pinnacle of research, development, and creative thought in the country, if not the world. While traditional sciences such as medicine and engineering certainly hold a share of innovation, no other field seems to give you the opportunity, or the downright encouragement, to create something new. That is a very exciting prospect for many people.

Technology also involves meaningful work. Don’t be fooled into thinking IT jobs are all about mind-numbing Twitter feeds and dumbed-down smartphone games; technology involves important careers that improve people’s lives and create valuable, useful solutions to real-world problems.

There is also a large variety of work available. Technology is integral in nearly every industry in the country, including agriculture, transportation, journalism, entertainment, real estate, and manufacturing. You name an industry and there are sure to be dozens, hundreds, possibly thousands of technology jobs available. This allows people with a tech background to work in nearly any geographical area, any field, and any industry.

Would You be Successful in a Technology Career?

How can you be certain if one of the many promising jobs in tech is right for you? It takes a lot of commitment and dedication. However, certain characteristics lead to a successful (and happy!) career in technology.

While technology careers involve lots of scientific reasoning and hard data, being a creative, right-brain thinker is actually beneficial. No matter what the position, working with technology involves finding creative solutions that are both usable and visually attractive. It’s no coincidence that technology companies from Google to IMB are constantly investing in creative efforts.

You should also enjoy problem solving. Nearly every posting for information technology jobs or careers in tech will have the phrase “problem solving” somewhere in the text. If you are the type of person who tries to fix your own bike, television, or wifi connection without the help of a professional, you likely fit the bill for an IT career.

A desire to learn is also vital, especially if you want to land one of the best paying tech jobs in the industry. Systems, software, and equipment are evolving faster than ever before, so you need to be fully committed to constant training through classes, certifications, seminars, and industry information.

While not all technology careers are completely tied to a desk, there will certainly be lots of screen time. If the thought of spending hours, often full work weeks, in front of a computer sounds unbearable, then a technology career may not be right for you.

Best Paying Entry-Level Technology Jobs

If you are looking for a high-quality technology career, first consider the entry level positions. These jobs in information technology not only provide a stable career with excellent pay, they are often available to people who are just entering into the technology sector with minimal education.

#1 Computer Programmer

Entry Level Salary: $48,790
Median Salary: $84,280
Top 10% Earn: $134,630

Writing and testing code for computer and software applications, computer programmers take ideas, often created by developers and software engineers, and turn them into real-life programs. As a computer programmer, you will need to know the language of computers, including C++, Java, and more. There is one issue with this technology career, however. According to the BLS, the job outlook for computer programmers is expected to decline by 7% between 2018 and 2028. With over 250,000 total jobs, it can still be a great entry career, but there may not be as many opportunities in the next 10 years. According to CareerOneStop, 74% of current workers have a bachelor’s degree or above, often in computer science or related field.

#2 Web Developer

Entry Level Salary: $37,930
Median Salary: $69,430
Top 10% Earn: $124,480

Web developers high median pay makes it one of the best jobs in the technology and information sector. As a web developer, your primary responsibility will the design and creation of websites. Not only are you responsible for the overall look and visual appeal of the site, you are also responsible for technical aspects, such as ease of use, layout, and general performance. The demand for web developers is expected to grow by 13% between 2018 and 2028, making it one of the most in-demand IT careers in the country. Plus, standard entry level education is an associate’s degree so you can break into the industry quickly! You may want to spring for a bachelor’s, however, as it can make you a more competitive candidate!

#3 Computer Support Specialist

Entry Level Salary: $38,270
Median Salary: $62,770
Top 10% Earn: $105,770

By providing help and advice on networks and systems, computer support specialists make the use of computers easier for other people who may not have advanced computer training and knowledge. They may test and evaluate existing networks, perform regular maintenance, and troubleshoot network systems. In many cases, a computer support specialist will listen to a user’s issues and provide troubleshooting and repair advice to solve the problem. Many computer support specialists will work for computer design firms. Others will be employed by educational organizations, such as universities and local schools. There is an expected job growth of 10%, making it a reliable technology career field for future opportunities. An associate’s degree also qualifies you to become a support specialist but you may be more competitive with a bachelor’s depending on the company.


10 Highest Paying Tech Careers

We did the research for you on the best paying jobs in technology so you can feel confident you’ll be looking at a lucrative and rewarding career after graduation. The following list includes the ten tech jobs with the highest median salary. With further education and on the job training you may earn well over the median salaries listed. Almost all require a bachelor’s degree for entry level employment.

#1 Computer & Information Systems Manager

Median Salary: $142,530
Job Growth: 11%
Number of Jobs: 414,400

Also called IT project managers, computer and information systems managers are advanced and experienced professionals who determine information technology goals and create systematic plans to meet them. Like many managers, they take an all-encompassing approach to their jobs, generating long-term plans, delegating assignments, and organizing phases of an operation. They will also need to determine both short and longterm personnel needs and staff accordingly. As a computer and information systems manager, you will essentially direct all computer-related work and determine the steps to create a better network and software system. Recommended entry level education is a bachelor’s degree.

#2 Computer & Information Research Scientist

Median Salary: $118,370
Job Growth: 16%
Number of Jobs: 31,700

Sitting at the forefront of information technology, computer and information research scientists create and design new ways to use computing technology. They research techniques and invent new directions for software and computers. By attacking complex problems, research scientist create new technology methods for numerous industries, including business, medical, and scientific fields. A large portion (28%) of computer and information research scientists work for the federal government. However, many work for the computer systems industry, the information industry, and the engineering industry. Roughly 11% work for colleges and universities.

#3 Computer Hardware Engineer

Median Salary: $114,600
Job Growth: 6%
Number of Jobs: 64,400

These are the professionals that deal directly with physical computer components, such as processors, circuit boards, memory chips, and routers. They are engineers, so they deal with the physical nature of technology and may be tasked with creating new hardware that is more efficient or effective. While computer hardware engineers may not deal directly with code and software development on a regular basis, they will test completed models of their equipment, sometimes using existing software or programs to make the new hardware function. They may also update current hardware to meet the advanced needs of evolving software.

#4 Software Systems Developer

Median Salary: $110,000
Job Growth: 10%
Number of Jobs: 421,300

The other form of software developers work with the systems. These technology experts research and create systems-level software. They can work in a wide variety of engaging industries, including medical, military, industrial, and scientific fields. If you choose this career path, you will set operational specifications and create software requirements. To have success as a software developer, you need to work with the basic principles of computer science, as well as engineering and mathematical analytics. Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey are the top paying states for software systems developers.

#5 Computer Network Architect

Median Salary: $109,020
Job Growth: 5%
Number of Jobs: 159,300

These professionals are the ones who design and build data communication networks, ranging from LANs, for “local area networks,” to WANs, for “wide area networks.” The networks that are assembled by these experts can connect two offices in different cities or connect a complex network of offices, satellite offices, and in-home offices. One of the tasks that a computer network architect will complete is the initial planning for a computer system. They may also have to present plans to an administrative or leadership board, and could be asked to upgrade security systems or research new and emerging technology that could be beneficial to the organization’s network.

#6 Software Applications Developer

Median Salary: $103,620
Job Growth: 26%
Number of Jobs: 944,200

As the BLS organizes it, software developers fall into two general categories: system developers and application developers. We’ll start with the applications. This career usually starts with the ability to research and analyze a user’s needs and create a computer or smartphone application to meet these needs. If creating an application for businesses, much of the focus could be optimizing efficiency. The applications that are developed will often be fully customized to a specific business, organization, or industry, although many of them will be applicable to numerous areas. For example, a developer may create accounting software that applies to nearly any organization in the country.

#7 Information Security Analyst

Median Salary: $98,350
Job Growth: 32%
Number of Jobs: 112,300

A computer network needs to be protected from cyber-attacks and unauthorized access. While many careers in tech deal with security on some level, an information security analyst is 100% dedicated to the complete security of a computer network. They plan and carryout security steps, or monitor a system for security breaches and investigate potential violations. One of the top tasks for security analysts is the implementation of security software, such as firewalls and encryption programs. They may even conduct security audits by intentionally attempting to hack through a system in order to identify weaknesses.


#8 Database Administrator

Median Salary: $90,070
Job Growth: 9%
Number of Jobs: 116,900

While database administrators do not actually create software, they use specialized technology to store, organize, and implement data. One of their primary tasks in making sure data is available to the people who need it, which can include CEOs, government officials, entry-level employees, and sales staff. The type of data that a database administrator works with is commonly financial and customer records. For example, a database administrator may work with and maintain a database to ensure sales rep can easily reference a customer’s previous orders, budget, and purchase patterns. Allowing sales staff to reference this data is an organized and clear fashion is the responsibility of a database administrator.

#9 Computer Systems Analyst

Median Salary: $88,740
Job Growth: 9%
Number of Jobs: 633,900

These highly-trained and experienced professionals are called upon to analyze an organization’s current computer system and make recommendations towards improving efficiency and effectiveness. Combining IT knowledge and business experience, computer systems analysts understand the needs of businesses and adapt computer systems to meet these needs. They may consult with management, research new technologies, prescribe changes, and even implement the changes they recommend. There is expected to be massive growth for this job, making it one of the best tech careers, both from a financial and a job-security standpoint.

#10 Network & Computer System Administrators

Median Salary: $82,050
Job Growth: 5%
Number of Jobs: 383,900

Nearly every company and organization needs a network of computers to conduct business and meet their operational goals. They turn to network and computer systems administrators to setup, maintain, and repair these networks. Systems administrators work with the physical computers, installing network hardware, maintaining system security, and collecting data to analyze and evaluate the system. Systems administrators may also be required to train others on proper use of the computer system, and they often have to solve problems related to the software or hardware.


Finding a Job in Technology

Because every industry, every city, and nearly every company needs some form of information technology services, there are technology careers no matter where you live or what your specific expertise. However, certain areas are hot spots for IT jobs.

Of course, Silicon Valley in California is one of the nationally-famous hubs for technology development and innovation. In fact, many west coast cities, including San Francisco and Seattle are top spots for tech jobs. However, according to Glassdoor, east coast cities, such as Boston and Washington D.C. are also excellent for high paying tech jobs. Even midwest cities, such as Minneapolis and St. Louis, are areas where highly-trained tech professionals can find many opportunities.

So how can you find your job out of all technology careers? Like most careers, it starts with education and learning. While it is possible to get a job in the technology field without a formal education, you will discover that many more opportunities are available if you have a bachelor’s degree, usually involving computer science, programming, or software engineering in some form. You can also become certified by technology organizations, which demonstrates your commitment to staying at the leading edge of the technology sector and makes employers more enticed by your resume.

When applying and interviewing for a job, make sure to speak directly on how your education and experience will help that specific organization. Cite past projects and assignments that will help you meet the unique challenges that face this business, and talk in clear, substantive ways on how you will help the team. IT technology can be very broad and can include lots of technical jargon that hiring managers may not fully comprehend, so it’s important that you communicate, in a clear manner, how your experience will enhance an organization.

Is Self-Employment an Option?

If you have an education, training, or experience in information technology, you may be able to enjoy the independence and earning potential of self-employment. This path, which offers greater freedom and the chance to be your own boss, is certainly not an easy trail. You’ll be the business, so organization, time management, accounting, marketing, and all the other business tasks fall on your shoulders.

However, there are many technology experts who are either freelancers or have a small tech firm, providing information technology services to numerous business. These services can include network setup, security analysis, hardware installation, software development and more.

Technology Careers Are Waiting!

Jump-start your education and launch a profitable and rewarding career with a computer-related degree. With a high-paying IT job, the future is looking bright!

To review, a computer-related degree can:

  • Advance your career
  • Open up new industries and jobs
  • Increase your earnings
  • Open up high-growth job sectors
  • Provide you with a foundation for future educational pursuits